Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is still a threat for healthcare workers (HCW), due to the non decreasing incidence, the spread of drug-resistance, the introduction of new tests for the screening, the relevant costs of surveillance of exposed subjects. These issues implicate a revision of activities to prevent TB in health-care settings. Methods. A multidisciplinary working group, led by occupational physicians, examined the activities to prevent TB performed in 9 Italian hospitals and reviewed the literature, with the aim to formulate evidence-based procedures. Results. In the considered hospitals, 23.000 HCW are classified as exposed to TB, out of 32.000 HCW exposed to biological risks; yearly, about 6000 subjects are screened for preventive, periodical or post-exposure surveillance and 110-130 chemoprophylaxis are prescribed. A high poportion of HCW (54-75%) refused or interrupt to assume the drugs. In the period 2004-2008,14 occupational TB were diagnosed (91100.000 HCW exposed to biological risks). Discussion. Critical issues are the availability of a specific, written TB control plan, including risk assessment, protocols for identifying, evaluating, managing infectious TB patients, health surveillance, education programs, specifically addressed to increase Standard Precaution adoption and compliance to the screening and to adequate risk perception. Risk assessment identify HCW to be included in TB testing (characterized by low positive predictive value), unrecognized TB and environmental control needed; TB risk classification should include no more than 3 or 4 classes and performed by assessing the issues suggested in the Italian guideline. Tubercolin skin test should be used for HCW screening, adding in vitro test in specific circumstances (for example, skin test positivity in BCG vaccinated HCW); the frequency of the screening should not exceed 2 years. Periodical revision of preventive activities should follow up to date scientific literature and need appropriate data computing.
La tubercolosi. Focus sulla valutazione del rischio e la sorveglianza sanitaria dei lavoratori della sanità : risultati e prospettive di un gruppo di lavoro multicentrico / D. Placidi, M. Bacis, L. Belotti, N. Biggi, P. Carrer, L. Cologni, V. Gattini, V. Lodi, N. Magnavita, G. Micheloni, C. Negro, R. Polato, V. Puro, F. Tonelli, B. Tonozzi, S. Porru. - In: GIORNALE ITALIANO DI MEDICINA DEL LAVORO ED ERGONOMIA. - ISSN 1592-7830. - 32:3(2010), pp. 273-281.
|Titolo:||La tubercolosi. Focus sulla valutazione del rischio e la sorveglianza sanitaria dei lavoratori della sanità : risultati e prospettive di un gruppo di lavoro multicentrico|
|Parole Chiave:||Good medical practices; Health care workers; Tuberculosis|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/44 - Medicina del Lavoro|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|