Transmission of HIV-1 and drug resistance continue to occur at a considerable level in Italy, influenced mainly by changes in modality of infection. However, the long period of infectivity makes difficult the interpretation of epidemiological networks, based on epidemiological data only. We studied 510 naive HIV-1-infected individuals, of whom 400 (78.4%) were newly diagnosed patients with an unknown duration of infection (NDs), with the aim of identifying sexual epidemiological networks and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) over a 7-year period. Clusters were identified by Bayesian methods for 412 patients with B subtype; 145 individuals (35.2%) clustered in 34 distinct clades. Within epidemiological networks males were 93.1% (n=135); the same proportion of patients has been infected by the sexual route; 62.1% (n=90) were men having sex with men (MSM) of whom 67.8% (n=61) were NDs. Among heterosexuals (n=44), males were predominant (79.5%, n=35) and 77.3% (n=34) were NDs. TDR in clusters was 11.7 % (n=17), of whom 76.5% (n=13) was found in MSM. TDR was predominantly associated with NRTI resistance in individuals with chronic infection (n=11). A high prevalence of epidemiological networks has been found in the metropolitan area of Milan, indicating a high frequency of transmission events. The cluster analysis of networks suggested that the source of new infections was mainly represented by males and MSM who have long lasting HIV-1 infection. Notably, the prevalence of resistance-conferring mutations was higher in chronically infected patients, carrying mainly resistance to thymidine analogs, the backbone of first antiretroviral (ARV) generation. Intervention strategies of public health are needed to limit HIV-1 transmission and the associated TDR.
Transmission of Resistant HIV-1 Variants and Epidemiological Chains in Italian Newly Diagnosed Individuals / A. Lai, M. Violin, E. Ebranati, M. Franzetti, V. Micheli, M.R. Gismondo, A. Capetti, P. Meraviglia, F.R. Simonetti, G. Bozzi, M. Ciccozzi, M. Galli, G. Zehender, C. Balotta. - In: AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES. - ISSN 0889-2229. - 28:8(2012), pp. 857-865.
|Titolo:||Transmission of Resistant HIV-1 Variants and Epidemiological Chains in Italian Newly Diagnosed Individuals|
LAI, ALESSIA (Primo)
VIOLIN, MICHELA BARBARA (Secondo)
ZEHENDER, GIANGUGLIELMO (Penultimo)
BALOTTA, CLAUDIA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||antiretroviral-drug-resistance; prevalence; Europe; seroconverters; Switzerland; infection; patterns|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive|
Settore MED/42 - Igiene Generale e Applicata
Settore MED/07 - Microbiologia e Microbiologia Clinica
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||22-nov-2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2011.0245|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|