Horses display remarkable aerobic capabilities, attaining during muscular exercise a maximal rate of oxygen consumption about 30-fold higher than the resting value, and 2.5-fold higher than that of other mammals of similar body mass. Under these circumstances an enormous mechanical burden is expected to impinge on the equine respiratory pump and regulatory mechanisms aiming to minimize this load may play an important role in determining the adequacy of the respiratory system to the metabolic requirements. The behaviour of the respiratory system has been investigated in horses at rest and during treadmill locomotion at different velocities and gaits. During exercise hyperpnoea, horses exhibit a significant reduction in the lung viscous resistance not observed in other mammals, such as dogs and humans. Therefore, the exercise-dependent increase in the rate of mechanical work of breathing is lower in the horse than in other mammals. This increase in the equine airway patency during exercise appeared to be mainly determined by the pattern of laryngeal movements. In fact, during exercise, the laryngeal cross-sectional area, determined with a video-endoscopic imaging technique at the level of rima glottidis (CSArg), undergoes during inspiration an increase averaging up to over 4 times the resting expiratory values. Although a significant linear correlation was found between CSArg and minute ventilation (VE), the laryngeal activation contributes to increase lung conductance only when CSArg is narrower than the tracheal section. It appears therefore that in exercising horses pulmonary resistive features are finely controlled to reduce the mechanical load supported by the respiratory muscles and to counterbalance the increase in the ventilatory energetic requirements inherent in the remarkably enhanced aerobic performance observed in this species.
|Titolo:||The regulation of respiratory resistance in exercising horses|
|Autori interni:||ALBERTINI, MARIANGELA (Penultimo)|
CLEMENT, MARIA GIOVANNA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Endoscopic imaging - Horse treadmill exercise - Laryngeal movements - Lung resistance - Work of breathing|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore VET/02 - Fisiologia Veterinaria|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2003|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00421-003-0925-0|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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