The use of nonmammal models in teratological studies is a matter of debate and seems to be justified if the embryotoxic mechanism involves conserved processes. Published data on mammals and Xenopus laevis suggest that azoles are teratogenic by altering the endogenous concentration of retinoic acid (RA). The expression of some genes (Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2) controlled by retinoic acid is downregulated in rat embryos exposed at the phylotypic stage to the triazole triadimefon (FON). In order to propose X. laevis as a model for gene-based comparative teratology, this work evaluates the expression of Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2 in FON-exposed X. laevis embryos. METHODS: Embryos, exposed to a high concentration level (500μM) of FON from stage 13 till 17, were examined at stages 17, 27, and 47. Stage 17 and 27 embryos were processed to perform quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: The developmental rate was never affected by FON at any considered stage. FON-exposed stage 47 larvae showed the typical craniofacial malformations. A significant downregulation of Gsc was observed in FON-exposed stage 17 embryos. Shh, Ptch-1, Msx2 showed a high fluctuation of expression both in control and in FON-exposed samples both at stages 17 and 27. CONCLUSION: The downregulation of Gsc mimics the effects of FON on rat embryos, showing for this gene a common effect of FON in the two vertebrate classes. The high fluctuation observed in the gene expression of the other genes, however, suggests that X. laevis at this stage has limited utility for gene-based comparative teratology.
Expression analysis of some genes regulated by retinoic acid in controls and triadimefon-exposed embryos: is the amphibian Xenopus laevis a suitable model for gene-based comparative teratology? / F. Di Renzo, F. Rossi, R. Bacchetta, M. Prati, E. Giavini, E. Menegola. - In: BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH. PART B, DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY. - ISSN 1542-9733. - 92:3(2011 Jun), pp. 189-194.
|Titolo:||Expression analysis of some genes regulated by retinoic acid in controls and triadimefon-exposed embryos: is the amphibian Xenopus laevis a suitable model for gene-based comparative teratology?|
DI RENZO, FRANCESCA (Primo)
GIAVINI, ERMINIO (Penultimo)
MENEGOLA, ELENA (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||Comparative teratology; FON; Gene expression; Xenopus|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/06 - Anatomia Comparata e Citologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||giu-2011|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||18-mag-2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.20294|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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