The use of specific agents to heal mucosal lesions or to prevent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug toxicity, has focused upon two approaches: replacement of prostaglandin deficiency and inhibition of acid secretion. Acid suppression with traditional ulcer healing doses of H2-blockers is effective in healing gastric and duodenal ulcers upon discontinuation of the offending drug. In the event the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug must be continued, the use of H2-blockers is associated with a decrease in the healing rate. In long-term prevention studies, H2-blockers significantly reduce duodenal ulcer rates, but are ineffective in reducing gastric ulceration. More potent acid inhibition with a double-dose of H2-blockers (famotidine 80 mg daily, ranitidine 600 mg daily) may reduce the risk of gastric and duodenal ulcers. Marked acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole 20-40 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg daily) also appears to be very effective in healing gastric and duodenal ulcers in patients continuing the offending drug as well. An analysis of pooled data from comparative studies on omeprazole vs ranitidine, misoprostol and sucralfate shows a therapeutic advantage in favour of the proton pump inhibitor, ranging from 10 to 40%. In long-term prevention studies, omeprazole (20 mg daily) and pantoprazole (40 mg daily) have also been shown to reduce the risk of gastric and duodenal ulcers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related dyspepsia. Current data from recent comparative studies of omeprazole (20 mg daily) vs ranitidine (150 mg daily) and misoprostol (200 microg daily) showed that, after 6 months' follow-up, the proton pump inhibitor was significantly superior to control drugs in reducing the risk both of gastric and duodenal ulcer. Misoprostol (at doses ranging from 400 microg to 800 microg/day) is an effective form of therapy for preventing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastroduodenal lesions. However high-dose misoprostol only, seems adequate for the prevention of ulcer complications, mainly in high-risk non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users. Thus, available data are undoubtedly in favour of the proton pump inhibitors as well tolerated and effective drugs in the prophylaxis and treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related mucosal lesions in the gastrointestinal tract.
|Titolo:||Prophylaxis and treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced upper gastrointestinal side-effects|
|Parole Chiave:||H2-blockers; Helicobacter pylori; Misoprostol; NSAIDs; Proton pump inhibitors; Sucralfate|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/12 - Gastroenterologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2001|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/S1590-8658(01)80158-4|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|