Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in dialysis (HD) show peculiar, atypical features of clinical presentation and diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic, hematologic). This is also true for viral hepatitis infections, for which CKD patients represent an important risk group. In the past, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the major cause of viral hepatitis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the introduction of a rigorous infection-control strategy, routine screening of patients and staff for hepatitis B serologic markers, vaccination of susceptible patients and staff, use of separate rooms and dedicated machines for HD of HbsAg-positive patients have all led to a decline in the spread of HBV infection in dialysis. Despite the prevalence of the antibody-hepatitis C virus (HCV), there has been a marked decrease in HD patients; after the introduction of routine screening for HCV and the use of erythropoietin, its occurrence ranges from 5% to 25% in the United States, with a prevalence of 6.8% in Europe. In CKD and in HD patients, the presence of HBV and HCV is an independent and significant risk factor for death and this risk may be at least partially attributed to chronic liver disease with its attendant complications. Liver disease can progress with modest hepatic inflammation and prominent fibrosis; the natural history of viral hepatitis in these patients is dependent on the immune dysfunction typical of kidney disease. Despite recent advances in antiviral therapy, there are still many uncertainties in regards to the efficacy and long-term outcomes of treatment with antiviral agents.
The management of viral hepatitis in CKD patients : an unresolved problem / C. Molino, F. Fabbian, M. Cozzolino, C. Longhini. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS. - ISSN 0391-3988. - 31:8(2008 Aug), pp. 683-696.
|Titolo:||The management of viral hepatitis in CKD patients : an unresolved problem|
COZZOLINO, MARIO GENNARO (Penultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Chronic kidney disease; Hemodialysis; Viral hepatitis|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/14 - Nefrologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||ago-2008|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|