Drug resistance in schizophrenic disorders treated with an antipsychotic medication is highly problematic, lacking sound criteria to define it, and to discriminate between drug response and clinical remission. This article reviews some neurochemical, psychoimmunological, pharmacogenetic and neuromorphological patterns which can affect drug response and determine drug-resistance phenomena in schizophrenia. Several neurochemical abnormalities have been reported to be relevant for the pathogenesis of schizophrenic disorders and have been related to clinical symptoms as well as to the quality of response to antipsychotics: most of the findings come from studies on DA and 5HT brain metabolism, but more recently other non-dopaminergic pathways have been implicated (e.g., glutamatergic ones). Literature data suggest that schizophrenia may be associated with significant alterations of T-cell functions, showing the activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS), particularly in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and differential effects on IRS have been reported for conventional and atypical antipsychotics. Furthermore molecular genetic approaches provide a novel method of dissecting the heterogeneity of psychotropic drug response, providing the means of determining the molecular substrates of drug efficacy and drug-induced adverse events. On the other hand, functional neuroimaging techniques, including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), providing an in vivo assessment of the expression and function of neuroreceptors, transporters and enzymes, seem to be particularly promising for a better understanding of 'real' drug resistance. Finally, a multidimensional approach taking into account all these variables in the future would likely be the more valuable strategy to optimise response, reducing relapses or resistant clinical situations.

Some biological correlates of drug resistance in schizophrenia : a multidimensional approach / A.C. Altamura, R. Bassetti, E. Cattaneo, S. Vismara. - In: THE WORLD JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY. - ISSN 1562-2975. - 6:Suppl. 2(2005), pp. 23-30.

Some biological correlates of drug resistance in schizophrenia : a multidimensional approach

A.C. Altamura
Primo
;
E. Cattaneo
Penultimo
;
S. Vismara
Ultimo
2005

Abstract

Drug resistance in schizophrenic disorders treated with an antipsychotic medication is highly problematic, lacking sound criteria to define it, and to discriminate between drug response and clinical remission. This article reviews some neurochemical, psychoimmunological, pharmacogenetic and neuromorphological patterns which can affect drug response and determine drug-resistance phenomena in schizophrenia. Several neurochemical abnormalities have been reported to be relevant for the pathogenesis of schizophrenic disorders and have been related to clinical symptoms as well as to the quality of response to antipsychotics: most of the findings come from studies on DA and 5HT brain metabolism, but more recently other non-dopaminergic pathways have been implicated (e.g., glutamatergic ones). Literature data suggest that schizophrenia may be associated with significant alterations of T-cell functions, showing the activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS), particularly in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and differential effects on IRS have been reported for conventional and atypical antipsychotics. Furthermore molecular genetic approaches provide a novel method of dissecting the heterogeneity of psychotropic drug response, providing the means of determining the molecular substrates of drug efficacy and drug-induced adverse events. On the other hand, functional neuroimaging techniques, including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), providing an in vivo assessment of the expression and function of neuroreceptors, transporters and enzymes, seem to be particularly promising for a better understanding of 'real' drug resistance. Finally, a multidimensional approach taking into account all these variables in the future would likely be the more valuable strategy to optimise response, reducing relapses or resistant clinical situations.
Antipsychotic treatment; Drug-resistance; Pharmacogenetics; Schizophrenia
Settore MED/25 - Psichiatria
2005
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/15404
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