The general formalism of quantum mechanics for the description of statistical experiments is briefly reviewed, introducing in particular position and momentum observables as POVM characterized by their covariance properties with respect to the isochronous Galilei group. Mappings describing state transformations both as a consequence of measurement and of dynamical evolution for a closed or open system are considered with respect to the general constraints they have to obey and their covariance properties with respect to symmetry groups. In particular different master equations are analyzed in view of the related symmetry group, recalling the general structure of mappings covariant under the same group. This is done for the damped harmonic oscillator, the two-level system, and quantum Brownian motion. Special attention is devoted to the general structure of translation-covariant master equations. Within this framework a recently obtained quantum counterpart of the classical linear Boltzmann equation is considered, as well as a general theoretical framework for the description of different decoherence experiments, pointing to a connection between different possible behaviors in the description of decoherence and the haracteristic functions of classical Lévy processes.
|Titolo:||Covariant mappings for the description of measurement, dissipation and decoherence in quantum mechanics|
VACCHINI, BASSANO MARIA (Primo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore FIS/02 - Fisica Teorica, Modelli e Metodi Matematici|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/978-3-642-02871-7|
|Tipologia:||Book Part (author)|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03 - Contributo in volume|