The main lesion in Parkinson disease (PD) is loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the most widely used therapy, but it does not arrest disease progression. Some possible contributing factors to the continuing neuronal loss are oxidative stress, including oxidation of L-DOPA, and neurotoxins generated by locally activated microglia and astrocytes. A possible method of reducing these factors is to produce L-DOPA hybrid compounds that have antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Here we demonstrate the properties of four such L-DOPA hybrids based on coupling L-DOPA to four different hydrogen sulfide-donating compounds. The donors themselves were shown to be capable of conversion by isolated mitochondria to H(2)S or equivalent SH(-) ions. This capability was confirmed by in vivo results, showing a large increase in intracerebral dopamine and glutathione after iv administration in rats. When human microglia, astrocytes, and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with these donating agents, they all accumulated H(2)S intracellularly as did their derivatives coupled to L-DOPA. The donating agents and the L-DOPA hybrids reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and nitric oxide from stimulated microglia, astrocytes as well as the THP-1 and U373 cell lines. They also demonstrated a neuroprotective effect by reducing the toxicity of supernatants from these stimulated cells to SH-SY5Y cells. L-DOPA itself was without effect in any of these assays. The H(2)S-releasing L-DOPA hybrid molecules also inhibited MAO B activity. They may be useful for the treatment of PD because of their significant antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties.
|Titolo:||Effects of hydrogen sulfide-releasing L-DOPA derivatives on glial activation : potential for treating Parkinson disease|
|Parole Chiave:||Hydrogen sulfide-releasing L-DOPA derivatives ; Parkinson disease ; MAO|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore CHIM/08 - Chimica Farmaceutica|
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
|Data di pubblicazione:||giu-2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1074/jbc.M110.115261|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|