Three areas of the 18th century fresco by Sebastiano Conca in the apse of the church (Santissima Annunziata, Siena, Italy) showed signs of deterioration. Twelve small fragments with a total weight of about 15 mg were detached from each of three damaged areas of the fresco and analysed. Element composition of specimens was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Some fragments were incubated in mineral medium without organic carbon. Samples from the lower part of the fresco (area A) produced colonies of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria on the carbon available in this medium. Fragments from two other two areas (areas B and C) did not produce any microorganisms. Two strains were isolated from area A and identified as Kocuria erythromyxa strain CV1 and Sphingomonas echinoides strain CV2 by sequencing gene 16S rDNA. When fresco fragments were soaked in mineral medium without carbon source, Sphigomonas echinoides grew rapidly. This strain produced a visible biofilm on the fresco fragments. The mucilage consisted mainly of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) detected in situ by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) with Con-A fluorescent lectin and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Ultrastructural analysis of sections of the microorganisms by TEM showed that only strain CV2 adhered to the substrate and caused biological deterioration of the fresco.
|Titolo:||Biodeterioration of a fresco by biofilm forming bacteria|
|Parole Chiave:||Biodeterioration; Endogenous carbon; Extracellular polymeric substances; Kocuria erythromyxa; Sphingomonas echinoides|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/16 - Microbiologia Agraria|
Settore BIO/19 - Microbiologia Generale
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.ibiod.2006.02.005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|