Background: Diagnosing iron deficiency in hemodialysis (HD) patients is crucial for correct anemia management. Hypochromic erythrocytes appear to be the best available marker, but they are often unavailable. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) and ferritin are also indicated as reference markers by guidelines. We evaluated the usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor (s-TfR) and reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (CHr), which have been recently proposed as more sensitive functional iron deficiency indicators. Methods: A single-center unselected cohort of 39 chronic HD patients underwent a cross-sectional determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), CHr, transferrin, iron, TSAT, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12 and s-TfR. Twenty-nine patients (74.4%) were treated with subcutaneous erythropoietin (EPO) at a dose of 122 ± 98 U/kg/week and 24 patients (61.5%) were treated with intravenous (i.v.) iron gluconate, 62.5 mg/week. Results: Hb was 11.1 ± 1.2 g/dL, Hct 34.4 ± 3.7%, CHr 32.7 ± 3.8 pg, transferrin 170 ± 31 mg/dL, iron 60.2 ± 25.9 mg/dL, TSAT 30 ± 18%; ferritin 204 ± 219 ng/mL, folate 4.2 ± 1.0 mcg/L, vitamin B12 0.58 ± 0.15 mcg/L, and s-TfR 1.94 ± 0.83 mg/L. Both TSAT and s-TfR significantly correlated with CHr, but no relationship could be found between s-TfR and TSAT or between s-TfR and ferritin. Dividing the population into two groups based on iron repletion (ferritin >100 ng/mL, and TSAT >20%) we found no differences for CHr levels and significantly lower levels of s-TfR in the replete group (s-TfR 1.71 ± 0.70 vs. 2.29 ± 0.90 mg/L; p=0.033). Analysis of 2×2 tables demonstrated that 44% of patients with TSAT >20% had elevated (>1.5 mg/L) s-TfR, indicating a possible functional iron deficiency, but covariance analysis showed that TSAT had a better correlation to CHr. Conclusions: No clear-cut advantages in the use of CHr content and s-TfR levels as single diagnostic tests could be demonstrated by this cross-sectional study. However, our results suggest that the combined use of TSAT <20% and s-TfR >1.5 mg/L (therefore, including all patients with low TSAT, but also patients with high s-TfR despite normal TSAT) could improve functional iron deficiency detection in dialysis patients suspected of having inflammatory conditions.

Soluble transferrin receptors and reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration in the assessment of iron deficiency in hemodialysis patients / M. Fusaro, G. Munaretto, M. Spinello, M. Rebeschini, G. Amici, M. Gallieni, A. Piccoli. - In: JN. JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY. - ISSN 1121-8428. - 18:1(2005 Jan), pp. 72-79.

Soluble transferrin receptors and reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration in the assessment of iron deficiency in hemodialysis patients

M. Gallieni
Penultimo
;
2005-01

Abstract

Background: Diagnosing iron deficiency in hemodialysis (HD) patients is crucial for correct anemia management. Hypochromic erythrocytes appear to be the best available marker, but they are often unavailable. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) and ferritin are also indicated as reference markers by guidelines. We evaluated the usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor (s-TfR) and reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (CHr), which have been recently proposed as more sensitive functional iron deficiency indicators. Methods: A single-center unselected cohort of 39 chronic HD patients underwent a cross-sectional determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), CHr, transferrin, iron, TSAT, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12 and s-TfR. Twenty-nine patients (74.4%) were treated with subcutaneous erythropoietin (EPO) at a dose of 122 ± 98 U/kg/week and 24 patients (61.5%) were treated with intravenous (i.v.) iron gluconate, 62.5 mg/week. Results: Hb was 11.1 ± 1.2 g/dL, Hct 34.4 ± 3.7%, CHr 32.7 ± 3.8 pg, transferrin 170 ± 31 mg/dL, iron 60.2 ± 25.9 mg/dL, TSAT 30 ± 18%; ferritin 204 ± 219 ng/mL, folate 4.2 ± 1.0 mcg/L, vitamin B12 0.58 ± 0.15 mcg/L, and s-TfR 1.94 ± 0.83 mg/L. Both TSAT and s-TfR significantly correlated with CHr, but no relationship could be found between s-TfR and TSAT or between s-TfR and ferritin. Dividing the population into two groups based on iron repletion (ferritin >100 ng/mL, and TSAT >20%) we found no differences for CHr levels and significantly lower levels of s-TfR in the replete group (s-TfR 1.71 ± 0.70 vs. 2.29 ± 0.90 mg/L; p=0.033). Analysis of 2×2 tables demonstrated that 44% of patients with TSAT >20% had elevated (>1.5 mg/L) s-TfR, indicating a possible functional iron deficiency, but covariance analysis showed that TSAT had a better correlation to CHr. Conclusions: No clear-cut advantages in the use of CHr content and s-TfR levels as single diagnostic tests could be demonstrated by this cross-sectional study. However, our results suggest that the combined use of TSAT <20% and s-TfR >1.5 mg/L (therefore, including all patients with low TSAT, but also patients with high s-TfR despite normal TSAT) could improve functional iron deficiency detection in dialysis patients suspected of having inflammatory conditions.
Anemia; Dialysis; Iron; Reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration; Soluble transferrin receptor
Settore MED/14 - Nefrologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/141094
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