Mancozeb, a polymeric complex of manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate with zinc salt, is widely used in agriculture as fungicide. Literature data indicate that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDTCs) may have immunomodulatory effects in humans. We have recently found in agricultural workers occupationally exposed to the fungicide mancozeb a statistically significant decrease in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) production in leukocytes. TNF is an essential proinflammatory cytokine whose production is normally stimulated during an infection. The purpose of this work was to establish an in vitro model reflecting in vivo data and to characterize the molecular mechanism of action of mancozeb. The human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 was used as in vitro model to study the effects of mancozeb and its main metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU) on LPS-induced TNF release. Mancozeb, but not ETU, at non-cytotoxic concentrations (1-100 microg/ml), induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced TNF release, reflecting in vivo data. The modulatory effect observed was not limited to mancozeb but also other EBDTCs, namely zineb and ziram, showed similar inhibitory effects. Mancozeb must be added before or simultaneously to LPS in order to observe the effect, indicating that it acts on early events triggered by LPS. It is known that nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) tightly regulates TNF transcription. We could demonstrate that mancozeb, modulating LPS-induced reactive oxygen species generation, prevented IkappaB degradation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, which in turn resulted in decreased TNF production. To further understand the mechanism of the effect of mancozeb on TNF transcription, THP-1 cells were transfected with NF-kappaB promoter-luciferase construct, and the effect of mancozeb on luciferase activity was measured. Cells transfected with promoter constructs containing kappaB site showed decreased LPS-induced luciferase activity relative to control after mancozeb treatment, confirming NF-kappaB binding as an intracellular target of mancozeb. Overall, this study contributes to our understanding of the mechanism underlying mancozeb-induced immunotoxicity.
Molecular mechanisms underlying mancozeb-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha production / E. Corsini, B. Viviani, S. Birindelli, F. Gilardi, A. Torri, I. Codecà, L. Lucchi, S. Bartesaghi, C.L. Galli, M. Marinovich, C. Colosio. - In: TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 0041-008X. - 212:2(2006 Apr 15), pp. 89-98.
|Titolo:||Molecular mechanisms underlying mancozeb-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha production|
CORSINI, EMANUELA (Primo)
VIVIANI, BARBARA (Secondo)
MARINOVICH, MARINA (Penultimo)
COLOSIO, CLAUDIO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Mancozeb ; immunotoxicity|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||15-apr-2006|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.002|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|