The promoter of the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene was analysed to test whether length variation of the repeat polymorphism contributes to variation in individual vulnerability to aggressive-criminal behaviour, and liability to heroin dependence. The repeat number of the MAO-A polymorphism was assessed in 199 male subjects of Italian descent, a sample comprising 95 healthy subjects and 104 heroin-dependent subjects including 52 addicted individuals with violent behaviour and antisocial personality disorder. The frequency of the low-activity 3-repeat allele was significantly higher in violent offenders among heroin addicts, compared to addicted individuals without antisocial behaviour (34.6 vs. 15.4%; p<0.03) and controls (18.9%; p<0.05). No significant difference was evidenced in the frequencies of the MAO-A alleles between heroin-dependent subjects in general and control subjects. High activity 4-repeat allele frequency was significantly higher in addicted individuals without antisocial behavior compared to antisocial-aggressive heroin-dependent subjects (76.9 vs. 55.8%; p<0.02). Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) mean total scores were significantly higher in heroin addicts than in controls (p<0.001), and in antisocial-violent heroin addicts in comparison with addicted individuals without antisocial behaviour (p<0.005). Among heroin addicts BDHI irritability, suspiciousness and resentment subscales scores were found significantly higher in low activity 3-repeat allele subjects than in high activity alleles subjects (p<0.001; p<0.05; p<0.05, respectively). No association was found between MAO-A polymorphism and suicide history. Our findings suggest that the low-activity 3-repeat allele of the MAO-A promoter polymorphism confers increased susceptibility to antisocial-violent behavior and aggressiveness, rather than drug dependence per se, in heroin-dependent males.
|Titolo:||Analysis of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) promoter polymorphism in male heroin-dependent subjects : behavioural and personality correlates|
|Parole Chiave:||Aggressiveness; Antisocial behaviour; Heroin dependence; MAO-A gene; Polymorphism; Promoter; Violent offenders|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/08 - Anatomia Patologica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2004|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00702-004-0129-8|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|