The pool of different carnitine derivatives is formed by carnitine, acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine and isovalerylcarnitine. Isovalerylcarnitine is a compound performing activities that differ from those of the other carnitine esters. Its activity on proteolytic enzymes and on the calpain system has been demonstrated in the past. Both the calpain and the caspase systems belong to the protease family and lead to cytochrome activation and apoptosis. The two systems can interact to promote apoptosis. In view of this proapoptotic activity of isovalerylcarnitine, studies were carried out to ascertain whether this carnitine derivative influences cell-reaction processes associated with apoptosis. U937 leukemic cells were selected for these studies because they are a well-established model for the assessment of cellular immune responses. In addition to nuclear morphologic alterations produced by apoptosis that can be detected by specific histochemical and microscopic methods, we also took other cell functions into consideration, such as phagocytosis, cell killing and cell growth, which are indices of immune function related to apoptosis. Unlike reference carnitine forms, isovalerylcarnitine produced an early and marked increase in phagocytosis and also an increase in cell killing. Cell proliferation was reduced. The hypothesis is set forth that isovalerylcarnitine may be a caspase-activating, proapoptotic factor that resembles various anticancer agents, which induce early apoptosis that coincides with early activation of caspase. This hypothesis is supported by the ability of isovalerylcarnitine to induce early phagocytosis and cell killing.
|Titolo:||Evaluation of carnitine, acetylcarnitine and isovalerylcarnitine on immune function and apoptosis|
FERRARA, FRANCA (Primo)
FALCHI, MARIO (Ultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|