Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a pivotal intervention among HIV prevention strategies. We aimed to narratively revise the topic of HIV acute infection in the setting of PrEP exposure with a focus on diagnostic options, clinical features, and future PrEP perspectives, with a particular focus on users with high adherence to PrEP. We searched the main databases (PubMed, Embase, and Scopus) with the keywords "PrEP" or "Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis" and "HIV" or "PLWH" and "breakthrough" or "acute infection" or "primary infection". We included all randomized clinical trials and non-experimental studies (both case reports and observational studies) ever published. In the present narrative review, we revise the diagnostic challenges related to HIV diagnosis in the setting of PrEP and the clinical characteristics and symptoms of breakthrough infections. We discuss the management of acute HIV infection during PrEP and the new challenges that arise from the use of long-acting drugs for PrEP. Our review underlines that although extremely rare, HIV seroconversions are still possible during PrEP, even in a context of high adherence. Efforts to promptly identify these events must be included in the PrEP follow-up in order to minimize the chance of overlooked HIV breakthrough infections and thus exposure to suboptimal concentrations of antiretrovirals.

Breakthrough Acute HIV Infections among Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Users with High Adherence: A Narrative Review / D. Moschese, S. Lazzarin, M.L. Colombo, F. Caruso, A. Giacomelli, S. Antinori, A. Gori. - In: VIRUSES. - ISSN 1999-4915. - 16:6(2024 Jun 12), pp. 951.1-951.19. [10.3390/v16060951]

Breakthrough Acute HIV Infections among Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Users with High Adherence: A Narrative Review

S. Lazzarin
Secondo
;
M.L. Colombo;F. Caruso;A. Giacomelli;S. Antinori
Penultimo
;
A. Gori
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a pivotal intervention among HIV prevention strategies. We aimed to narratively revise the topic of HIV acute infection in the setting of PrEP exposure with a focus on diagnostic options, clinical features, and future PrEP perspectives, with a particular focus on users with high adherence to PrEP. We searched the main databases (PubMed, Embase, and Scopus) with the keywords "PrEP" or "Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis" and "HIV" or "PLWH" and "breakthrough" or "acute infection" or "primary infection". We included all randomized clinical trials and non-experimental studies (both case reports and observational studies) ever published. In the present narrative review, we revise the diagnostic challenges related to HIV diagnosis in the setting of PrEP and the clinical characteristics and symptoms of breakthrough infections. We discuss the management of acute HIV infection during PrEP and the new challenges that arise from the use of long-acting drugs for PrEP. Our review underlines that although extremely rare, HIV seroconversions are still possible during PrEP, even in a context of high adherence. Efforts to promptly identify these events must be included in the PrEP follow-up in order to minimize the chance of overlooked HIV breakthrough infections and thus exposure to suboptimal concentrations of antiretrovirals.
HIV; PrEP; adherence; failure; primary HIV
Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive
12-giu-2024
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1067728
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