Human serum carnosinase is an enzyme that operates the preferential hydrolysis of dipeptides with a C-terminus histidine. Only higher primates excrete such an enzyme in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In humans, the serum hydrolytic rate has high interindividual variability owing to gene polymorphism, although age, gender, diet, and also diseases and surgical interventions can modify serum activity. Human genetic diseases with altered carnosinase activity have been identified and associated with neurological disorders and age-related cognitive decline. On the contrary, low peripheral carnosinase activity has been associated with kidney protection, especially in diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, serum carnosinase is a druggable target for the development of selective inhibitors. However, only one molecule (i.e., carnostatine) has been discovered with the purpose of developing serum carnosinase inhibitors. Bestatin is the only inhibitor reported other than carnostatine, although its activity is not selective towards serum carnosinase. Herein, we present a review of the most critical findings on human serum carnosinase, including enzyme expression, localization and substrate selectivity, along with factors affecting the hydrolytic activity, its implication in human diseases and the properties of known inhibitors of the enzyme.

State of the Art in the Development of Human Serum Carnosinase Inhibitors / L. Regazzoni. - In: MOLECULES. - ISSN 1420-3049. - 29:11(2024 May 24), pp. 2488.1-2488.21. [10.3390/molecules29112488]

State of the Art in the Development of Human Serum Carnosinase Inhibitors

L. Regazzoni
2024

Abstract

Human serum carnosinase is an enzyme that operates the preferential hydrolysis of dipeptides with a C-terminus histidine. Only higher primates excrete such an enzyme in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In humans, the serum hydrolytic rate has high interindividual variability owing to gene polymorphism, although age, gender, diet, and also diseases and surgical interventions can modify serum activity. Human genetic diseases with altered carnosinase activity have been identified and associated with neurological disorders and age-related cognitive decline. On the contrary, low peripheral carnosinase activity has been associated with kidney protection, especially in diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, serum carnosinase is a druggable target for the development of selective inhibitors. However, only one molecule (i.e., carnostatine) has been discovered with the purpose of developing serum carnosinase inhibitors. Bestatin is the only inhibitor reported other than carnostatine, although its activity is not selective towards serum carnosinase. Herein, we present a review of the most critical findings on human serum carnosinase, including enzyme expression, localization and substrate selectivity, along with factors affecting the hydrolytic activity, its implication in human diseases and the properties of known inhibitors of the enzyme.
serum carnosinase; carnosine; inhibitors; carnostatine; bestatin
Settore CHIM/08 - Chimica Farmaceutica
Settore CHIM/01 - Chimica Analitica
24-mag-2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1053828
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