Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples represent the cornerstone of tissue-based analysis in precision medicine. Targeted next-generation sequencing panels are routinely used to analyze a limited number of genes to guide treatment decision-making for advanced-stage patients. The number and complexity of genetic alterations to be investigated are rapidly growing; in several instances, a comprehensive genomic profiling analysis is needed. The poor quality of genetic material extracted from FFPE samples may impact the feasibility/reliability of sequencing data. We sampled 9 colorectal cancers to allow 4 parallel fixations: (1) neutral buffered formalin (NBF), (2) acid-deprived formalin fixation (ADF), (3) precooled ADF (coldADF), and (4) glyoxal acid free (GAF). DNA extraction, fragmentation analysis, and sequencing by 2 large next-generation sequencing panels (OCAv3 and TSO500) followed. We comprehensively analyzed library and sequencing quality controls and the quality of sequencing results. Libraries from coldADF samples showed significantly longer reads than the others with both panels. ADF-derived and coldADF-derived libraries showed the lowest level of noise and the highest levels of uniformity with the OCAv3 panel, followed by GAF and NBF samples. The data uniformity was confirmed by the TSO50 0 results, which also highlighted the best performance in terms of the total region sequenced for the ADF and coldADF samples. NBF samples had a significantly smaller region sequenced and displayed a significantly lower number of evaluable microsatellite loci and a significant increase in single-nucleotide variations compared with other protocols. Mutational signature 1 (aging and FFPE artifact related) showed the highest (37%) and lowest (17%) values in the NBF and coldADF samples, respectively. Most of the identified genetic alterations were shared by all samples in each lesion. Five genes showed a different mutational status across samples and/or panels: 4 discordant results involved NBF samples. In conclusion, acid-deprived fixatives (GAF and ADF) guarantee the highest DNA preservation/ sequencing performance, thus allowing more complex molecular profiling of tissue samples.(c) 2023 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Alternative Tissue Fixation Protocols Dramatically Reduce the Impact of DNA Artifacts, Unraveling the Interpretation of Clinical Comprehensive Genomic Profiling / E. Berrino, S.E. Bellomo, A. Chesta, P. Detillo, A. Bragoni, A. Gagliardi, A. Naccarati, M. Cereda, G. Witel, A. Sapino, B. Bussolati, G. Bussolati, C. Marchiò. - In: LABORATORY INVESTIGATION. - ISSN 0023-6837. - 104:1(2024 Jan), pp. 100280.1-100280.11. [10.1016/j.labinv.2023.100280]

Alternative Tissue Fixation Protocols Dramatically Reduce the Impact of DNA Artifacts, Unraveling the Interpretation of Clinical Comprehensive Genomic Profiling

M. Cereda;
2024

Abstract

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples represent the cornerstone of tissue-based analysis in precision medicine. Targeted next-generation sequencing panels are routinely used to analyze a limited number of genes to guide treatment decision-making for advanced-stage patients. The number and complexity of genetic alterations to be investigated are rapidly growing; in several instances, a comprehensive genomic profiling analysis is needed. The poor quality of genetic material extracted from FFPE samples may impact the feasibility/reliability of sequencing data. We sampled 9 colorectal cancers to allow 4 parallel fixations: (1) neutral buffered formalin (NBF), (2) acid-deprived formalin fixation (ADF), (3) precooled ADF (coldADF), and (4) glyoxal acid free (GAF). DNA extraction, fragmentation analysis, and sequencing by 2 large next-generation sequencing panels (OCAv3 and TSO500) followed. We comprehensively analyzed library and sequencing quality controls and the quality of sequencing results. Libraries from coldADF samples showed significantly longer reads than the others with both panels. ADF-derived and coldADF-derived libraries showed the lowest level of noise and the highest levels of uniformity with the OCAv3 panel, followed by GAF and NBF samples. The data uniformity was confirmed by the TSO50 0 results, which also highlighted the best performance in terms of the total region sequenced for the ADF and coldADF samples. NBF samples had a significantly smaller region sequenced and displayed a significantly lower number of evaluable microsatellite loci and a significant increase in single-nucleotide variations compared with other protocols. Mutational signature 1 (aging and FFPE artifact related) showed the highest (37%) and lowest (17%) values in the NBF and coldADF samples, respectively. Most of the identified genetic alterations were shared by all samples in each lesion. Five genes showed a different mutational status across samples and/or panels: 4 discordant results involved NBF samples. In conclusion, acid-deprived fixatives (GAF and ADF) guarantee the highest DNA preservation/ sequencing performance, thus allowing more complex molecular profiling of tissue samples.(c) 2023 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
DNA integrity; comprehensive genomic profiling; formalin fixation; precision medicine; sequencing; targeted panels;
Settore BIO/11 - Biologia Molecolare
gen-2024
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1050056
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