Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is commonly carried as a commensal bacterium in the nasopharynx but can cause life-threatening disease. Transmission occurs by human respiratory droplets and interruption of this process provides herd immunity. A 2017 WHO Consultation on Optimisation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) Impact highlighted a substantial research gap in investigating why the impact of PCV vaccines in low-income countries has been lower than expected. Malawi introduced the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) into the national Expanded Programme of Immunisations in 2011, using a 3+0 (3 primary +0 booster doses) schedule. With evidence of greater impact of a 2+1 (2 primary +1 booster dose) schedule in other settings, including South Africa, Malawi's National Immunisations Technical Advisory Group is seeking evidence of adequate superiority of a 2+1 schedule to inform vaccine policy.Methods A pragmatic health centre-based evaluation comparing impact of a PCV13 schedule change from 3+0 to 2+1 in Blantyre district, Malawi. Twenty government health centres will be randomly selected, with ten implementing a 2+1 and 10 to continue with the 3+0 schedule. Health centres implementing 3+0 will serve as the direct comparator in evaluating 2+1 providing superior direct and indirect protection against pneumococcal carriage. Pneumococcal carriage surveys will evaluate carriage prevalence among children 15-24 months, randomised at household level, and schoolgoers 5-10 years of age, randomly selected from school registers. Carriage surveys will be conducted 18 and 33 months following 2+1 implementation.Analysis The primary endpoint is powered to detect an effect size of 50% reduction in vaccine serotype (VT) carriage among vaccinated children 15-24 months old, expecting a 14% and 7% VT carriage prevalence in the 3+0 and 2+1 arms, respectively.Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Malawi College of Medicine Research Ethics Committee (COMREC; Ref: P05.19.2680), the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 8603.002) and the University of Liverpool Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 5439). The results from this study will be actively disseminated through manuscript publications and conference presentations.

A pragmatic health centre-based evaluation comparing the effectiveness of a PCV13 schedule change from 3+0 to 2+1 in a high pneumococcal carriage and disease burden setting in Malawi: a study protocol / T.D. Swarthout, A. Ibarz-Pavon, G. Kawalazira, G. Sinjani, J. Chirombo, A. Gori, P. Chalusa, F. Bonomali, R. Nyirenda, E. Bulla, C. Brown, J. Msefula, M. Banda, J. Kachala, C. Mwansambo, M.Y. Henrion, S.B. Gordon, N. French, R.S. Heyderman. - In: BMJ OPEN. - ISSN 2044-6055. - 11:6(2021), pp. e050312.1-e050312.9. [10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050312]

A pragmatic health centre-based evaluation comparing the effectiveness of a PCV13 schedule change from 3+0 to 2+1 in a high pneumococcal carriage and disease burden setting in Malawi: a study protocol

A. Gori;
2021

Abstract

Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is commonly carried as a commensal bacterium in the nasopharynx but can cause life-threatening disease. Transmission occurs by human respiratory droplets and interruption of this process provides herd immunity. A 2017 WHO Consultation on Optimisation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) Impact highlighted a substantial research gap in investigating why the impact of PCV vaccines in low-income countries has been lower than expected. Malawi introduced the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) into the national Expanded Programme of Immunisations in 2011, using a 3+0 (3 primary +0 booster doses) schedule. With evidence of greater impact of a 2+1 (2 primary +1 booster dose) schedule in other settings, including South Africa, Malawi's National Immunisations Technical Advisory Group is seeking evidence of adequate superiority of a 2+1 schedule to inform vaccine policy.Methods A pragmatic health centre-based evaluation comparing impact of a PCV13 schedule change from 3+0 to 2+1 in Blantyre district, Malawi. Twenty government health centres will be randomly selected, with ten implementing a 2+1 and 10 to continue with the 3+0 schedule. Health centres implementing 3+0 will serve as the direct comparator in evaluating 2+1 providing superior direct and indirect protection against pneumococcal carriage. Pneumococcal carriage surveys will evaluate carriage prevalence among children 15-24 months, randomised at household level, and schoolgoers 5-10 years of age, randomly selected from school registers. Carriage surveys will be conducted 18 and 33 months following 2+1 implementation.Analysis The primary endpoint is powered to detect an effect size of 50% reduction in vaccine serotype (VT) carriage among vaccinated children 15-24 months old, expecting a 14% and 7% VT carriage prevalence in the 3+0 and 2+1 arms, respectively.Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Malawi College of Medicine Research Ethics Committee (COMREC; Ref: P05.19.2680), the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 8603.002) and the University of Liverpool Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 5439). The results from this study will be actively disseminated through manuscript publications and conference presentations.
epidemiology; paediatric infectious disease & immunisation; public health
Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive
2021
17-giu-2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1049895
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