Among the available diagnostic techniques, antibody detection in bulk tank milk (BTM) represents a useful tool to estimate and monitor Neospora caninum herd prevalence. To evaluate the prevalence of N. caninum and the effect of parasite infection on herd performances, BTM samples collected from 586 dairy herds located in one of the largest dairy production areas in Italy (Lombardy) were analyzed by an indirect ELISA to detect anti-N. caninum specific antibodies. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were developed. A purely spatial analysis scanning for clusters with high or low rates for N. caninum using the Bernoulli model was performed. A maximum entropy approach was used to estimate the probability of distribution of the parasite based on occurrence records together with environmental variables. Overall, 180 herds resulted positive for N. caninum antibodies on bulk tank milk (P=30.7%). A higher risk of seropositivity was evidenced in the provinces of Milano, Cremona, Brescia, and Bergamo (P=32-40%); a lower risk was evidenced in Lodi, Pavia, and Mantova (P=13-24%). A higher risk of seropositivity was revealed for small-medium farms (101-300 animals) (O.R.=2.8) and for older animals with more than 4 years (O.R.=4.4). Regarding the effect of N. caninum infection on herd performances, the number of inseminations for conception was higher (> 3 inseminations), and the period from calving to conception was longer (> 150 days) for positive farms (O.R.=2.0 and O.R.=2.3, respectively); besides, lower head daily milk production (<20 kg and 21-25kg) and mature equivalent milk yield (<11000), and somatic cell counts higher than 300000 cells/ml were observed for N. caninum positive herds (O.R.=0.4, O.R.=0.4 and O.R.=1.9 respectively). The geographical distribution of N. caninum positive farms with the highest level of probability covers the central sector of the Po Plain where a significant cluster for high risk of parasite infection was shown by spatial scan statistic and Maximum entropy ecological niche modelling. A further significant cluster of low risk occurred in the southern. The climatic and environmental variables with the highest training gain when used in isolation resulted altitude, land use/land cover, and other variables related to temperature and precipitation. Neosporosis is widely distributed in Italian dairy herds and an impact of the parasite on herd performances could be hypothesized. Even if the role of N. caninum in alterations of reproductive and productive parameters should be further explored, veterinarians and farmers should be aware of neosporosis, and control plans should be adopted.

Neospora caninum antibodies in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Italy in relation to reproductive and productive parameters and spatial analysis / L. Villa, C. Allievi, A.R.D. Cerbo, S.A. Zanzani, F. Sommariva, L. Zanini, M. Mortarino, M.T. Manfredi. - In: ACTA TROPICA. - ISSN 0001-706X. - 254:(2024 Jun), pp. 107194.1-107194.10. [10.1016/j.actatropica.2024.107194]

Neospora caninum antibodies in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Italy in relation to reproductive and productive parameters and spatial analysis

L. Villa
Primo
;
C. Allievi
Secondo
;
S.A. Zanzani;M. Mortarino
Penultimo
;
M.T. Manfredi
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

Among the available diagnostic techniques, antibody detection in bulk tank milk (BTM) represents a useful tool to estimate and monitor Neospora caninum herd prevalence. To evaluate the prevalence of N. caninum and the effect of parasite infection on herd performances, BTM samples collected from 586 dairy herds located in one of the largest dairy production areas in Italy (Lombardy) were analyzed by an indirect ELISA to detect anti-N. caninum specific antibodies. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were developed. A purely spatial analysis scanning for clusters with high or low rates for N. caninum using the Bernoulli model was performed. A maximum entropy approach was used to estimate the probability of distribution of the parasite based on occurrence records together with environmental variables. Overall, 180 herds resulted positive for N. caninum antibodies on bulk tank milk (P=30.7%). A higher risk of seropositivity was evidenced in the provinces of Milano, Cremona, Brescia, and Bergamo (P=32-40%); a lower risk was evidenced in Lodi, Pavia, and Mantova (P=13-24%). A higher risk of seropositivity was revealed for small-medium farms (101-300 animals) (O.R.=2.8) and for older animals with more than 4 years (O.R.=4.4). Regarding the effect of N. caninum infection on herd performances, the number of inseminations for conception was higher (> 3 inseminations), and the period from calving to conception was longer (> 150 days) for positive farms (O.R.=2.0 and O.R.=2.3, respectively); besides, lower head daily milk production (<20 kg and 21-25kg) and mature equivalent milk yield (<11000), and somatic cell counts higher than 300000 cells/ml were observed for N. caninum positive herds (O.R.=0.4, O.R.=0.4 and O.R.=1.9 respectively). The geographical distribution of N. caninum positive farms with the highest level of probability covers the central sector of the Po Plain where a significant cluster for high risk of parasite infection was shown by spatial scan statistic and Maximum entropy ecological niche modelling. A further significant cluster of low risk occurred in the southern. The climatic and environmental variables with the highest training gain when used in isolation resulted altitude, land use/land cover, and other variables related to temperature and precipitation. Neosporosis is widely distributed in Italian dairy herds and an impact of the parasite on herd performances could be hypothesized. Even if the role of N. caninum in alterations of reproductive and productive parameters should be further explored, veterinarians and farmers should be aware of neosporosis, and control plans should be adopted.
abortion; cows; herd; milk; neosporosis; serology
Settore VET/06 - Parassitologia e Malattie Parassitarie degli Animali
   Miglioramento dell’efficienza riproduttiva e produttiva delle aziende di bovini latte lombarde attraverso azioni di divulgazione e dimostrative di modelli gestionali per il controllo della neosporosi (DEMONE)
   DEMONE
   REGIONE LOMBARDIA - Agricoltura
   201901317165)
giu-2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1042131
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