Durable remissions are observed in 10%-20% of treated patients with advanced metastatic melanoma but the factors associated with long-term complete clinical responses are largely unknown. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of tumor evolution during disease progression along a 9-year clinical course in a patient with advanced disseminated melanoma who received different treatments, including trametinib, ipilimumab, radiation, vemurafenib, surgical tumor debulking and a second ipilimumab course, ultimately achieving complete long-term disease remission. Longitudinal analyses of therapies-resistant metastatic tumors revealed the effects of different treatments on tumor's microenvironment and immunogenicity, ultimately creating a milieu favorable to immunotherapy response. Monitoring of the temporal dynamics of T cells by analysis of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in the tumor and peripheral blood during disease evolution indicated that T-cell clones with common TCR rearrangements, present at low levels at baseline, were maintained and expanded after immunotherapy, and that TCR diversity increased. Analysis of genetic, molecular, and cellular components of the tumor depicted a multistep process in which treatment with kinase inhibitors strongly conditioned the immune microenvironment creating an inflamed milieu converting cold into hot tumors, while ipilimumab impacted and increased the TCR repertoire, a requirement for tumor rejection. Since the optimal sequencing of treatment with antibodies targeting immune checkpoints and kinase inhibitors for advanced melanoma is still clinically debated, this case indicates that immunotherapy success is possible even after progression on targeted therapy.

Multistep tumor genetic evolution and changes in immunogenicity trigger immune-mediated disease eradication in stage IV melanoma: lessons from a single case / V. Vallacchi, E. Vergani, M. Cossa, C. Gargiuli, A. Busico, A. Devecchi, M. Dugo, L. Bergamaschi, L. De Cecco, S. Cavalieri, B. Valeri, E. Tamborini, G. Gallino, M. Del Vecchio, M. Santinami, M. Sensi, L. Rivoltini, L. Di Guardo, M. Rodolfo. - In: JOURNAL FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER. - ISSN 2051-1426. - 12:1(2024 Jan 04), pp. e007612.1-e007612.9. [10.1136/jitc-2023-007612]

Multistep tumor genetic evolution and changes in immunogenicity trigger immune-mediated disease eradication in stage IV melanoma: lessons from a single case

S. Cavalieri;
2024

Abstract

Durable remissions are observed in 10%-20% of treated patients with advanced metastatic melanoma but the factors associated with long-term complete clinical responses are largely unknown. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of tumor evolution during disease progression along a 9-year clinical course in a patient with advanced disseminated melanoma who received different treatments, including trametinib, ipilimumab, radiation, vemurafenib, surgical tumor debulking and a second ipilimumab course, ultimately achieving complete long-term disease remission. Longitudinal analyses of therapies-resistant metastatic tumors revealed the effects of different treatments on tumor's microenvironment and immunogenicity, ultimately creating a milieu favorable to immunotherapy response. Monitoring of the temporal dynamics of T cells by analysis of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in the tumor and peripheral blood during disease evolution indicated that T-cell clones with common TCR rearrangements, present at low levels at baseline, were maintained and expanded after immunotherapy, and that TCR diversity increased. Analysis of genetic, molecular, and cellular components of the tumor depicted a multistep process in which treatment with kinase inhibitors strongly conditioned the immune microenvironment creating an inflamed milieu converting cold into hot tumors, while ipilimumab impacted and increased the TCR repertoire, a requirement for tumor rejection. Since the optimal sequencing of treatment with antibodies targeting immune checkpoints and kinase inhibitors for advanced melanoma is still clinically debated, this case indicates that immunotherapy success is possible even after progression on targeted therapy.
immunotherapy; melanoma; receptors, antigen; tumor microenvironment
Settore MED/06 - Oncologia Medica
4-gen-2024
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1039359
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