Cold-active enzymes support life at low temperatures due to their ability to maintain high activity in the cold and can be useful in several biotechnological applications. Although information on the mechanisms of enzyme cold adaptation is still too limited to devise general rules, it appears that very diverse structural and functional changes are exploited in different protein families and within the same family. In this context, we studied the cold adaptation mechanism and the functional properties of a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) from the Antarctic bacterium Marinomonas sp. ef1. This enzyme exhibits all typical functional hallmarks of cold adaptation, including high catalytic activity at 5 °C, broad substrate specificity, low thermal stability, and higher lability of the active site compared to the overall structure. Analysis of the here-reported crystal structure (1.8 Å resolution) and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that cold activity and thermolability may be due to a flexible region around the active site (residues 298-331), whereas the dynamic behavior of loops flanking the active site (residues 47-61 and 407-413) may favor enzyme-substrate interactions at the optimal temperature of catalysis (Topt ) by tethering together protein regions lining the active site. Stapling of the N-terminus onto the surface of the β-barrel is suggested to partly counterbalance protein flexibility, thus providing a stabilizing effect. The tolerance of the enzyme to glucose and galactose is accounted for by the presence of a "gatekeeping" hydrophobic residue (Leu178), located at the entrance of the active site.

Structural determinants of cold activity and glucose tolerance of a family 1 glycoside hydrolase (GH1) from Antarctic Marinomonas sp. ef1 / L.J. Gourlay, M. Mangiagalli, E. Moroni, M. Lotti, M. Nardini. - In: THE FEBS JOURNAL. - ISSN 1742-464X. - (2024), pp. 1-21. [10.1111/febs.17096]

Structural determinants of cold activity and glucose tolerance of a family 1 glycoside hydrolase (GH1) from Antarctic Marinomonas sp. ef1

L.J. Gourlay
Co-primo
;
E. Moroni;M. Nardini
2024

Abstract

Cold-active enzymes support life at low temperatures due to their ability to maintain high activity in the cold and can be useful in several biotechnological applications. Although information on the mechanisms of enzyme cold adaptation is still too limited to devise general rules, it appears that very diverse structural and functional changes are exploited in different protein families and within the same family. In this context, we studied the cold adaptation mechanism and the functional properties of a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) from the Antarctic bacterium Marinomonas sp. ef1. This enzyme exhibits all typical functional hallmarks of cold adaptation, including high catalytic activity at 5 °C, broad substrate specificity, low thermal stability, and higher lability of the active site compared to the overall structure. Analysis of the here-reported crystal structure (1.8 Å resolution) and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that cold activity and thermolability may be due to a flexible region around the active site (residues 298-331), whereas the dynamic behavior of loops flanking the active site (residues 47-61 and 407-413) may favor enzyme-substrate interactions at the optimal temperature of catalysis (Topt ) by tethering together protein regions lining the active site. Stapling of the N-terminus onto the surface of the β-barrel is suggested to partly counterbalance protein flexibility, thus providing a stabilizing effect. The tolerance of the enzyme to glucose and galactose is accounted for by the presence of a "gatekeeping" hydrophobic residue (Leu178), located at the entrance of the active site.
cold-active enzyme; crystal structure; glucose tolerance; psychrophiles; β-glucosidase
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
   Dipartimenti di Eccellenza 2018-2022 - Dipartimento di BIOSCIENZE
   MINISTERO DELL'ISTRUZIONE E DEL MERITO

   Assegnazione Dipartimenti di Eccellenza 2023-2027 - Dipartimento di BIOSCIENZE
   DECC23_002
   MINISTERO DELL'UNIVERSITA' E DELLA RICERCA
2024
23-feb-2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1032809
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