The pathological remodeling of myocardial tissue is the main cause of heart diseases. Several processes are involved in the onset of heart failure, and the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathological phenotype deserves special attention to find novel procedures to identify the site of injury and develop novel strategies, as well as molecular druggable pathways, to counteract the high degree of morbidity associated with it. Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is recognized as a critical trigger for disruption of heart functionality due to the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, in response to an injury. Its diagnosis remains focalized on invasive techniques, such as endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), or may be noninvasively detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). The detection of MF by non-canonical markers remains a challenge in clinical practice. During the last two decades, two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has emerged as a new non-invasive imaging modality, able to detect myocardial tissue abnormalities without specifying the causes of the underlying histopathological changes. In this review, we highlighted the clinical utility of 2D-STE deformation imaging for tissue characterization, and its main technical limitations and criticisms. Moreover, we focalized on the importance of coupling 2D-STE examination with the molecular approaches in the clinical decision-making processes, in particular when the 2D-STE does not reflect myocardial dysfunction directly. We also attempted to examine the roles of epigenetic markers of MF and hypothesized microRNA-based mechanisms aiming to understand how they match with the clinical utility of echocardiographic deformation imaging for tissue characterization and MF assessment.

Molecular Approaches and Echocardiographic Deformation Imaging in Detecting Myocardial Fibrosis / A. Sonaglioni, G. Luigi Nicolosi, E. Rigamonti, M. Lombardo, L. LA SALA. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 23:18(2022 Sep), pp. 10944.1-10944.18. [10.3390/ijms231810944]

Molecular Approaches and Echocardiographic Deformation Imaging in Detecting Myocardial Fibrosis

M. Lombardo;L. LA SALA
2022

Abstract

The pathological remodeling of myocardial tissue is the main cause of heart diseases. Several processes are involved in the onset of heart failure, and the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathological phenotype deserves special attention to find novel procedures to identify the site of injury and develop novel strategies, as well as molecular druggable pathways, to counteract the high degree of morbidity associated with it. Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is recognized as a critical trigger for disruption of heart functionality due to the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, in response to an injury. Its diagnosis remains focalized on invasive techniques, such as endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), or may be noninvasively detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). The detection of MF by non-canonical markers remains a challenge in clinical practice. During the last two decades, two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has emerged as a new non-invasive imaging modality, able to detect myocardial tissue abnormalities without specifying the causes of the underlying histopathological changes. In this review, we highlighted the clinical utility of 2D-STE deformation imaging for tissue characterization, and its main technical limitations and criticisms. Moreover, we focalized on the importance of coupling 2D-STE examination with the molecular approaches in the clinical decision-making processes, in particular when the 2D-STE does not reflect myocardial dysfunction directly. We also attempted to examine the roles of epigenetic markers of MF and hypothesized microRNA-based mechanisms aiming to understand how they match with the clinical utility of echocardiographic deformation imaging for tissue characterization and MF assessment.
TGF-beta signalling; myocardial fibrosis; microRNAs; speckle tracking echocardiography; myocardial strain; subclinical myocardial dysfunction; modified Haller index
Settore MED/13 - Endocrinologia
set-2022
19-set-2022
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1031868
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