Purpose of review: Elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and lowering LDL-C reduces the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Among natural approaches known for their lipid-lowering properties, red yeast rice (RYR) has a cholesterol-lowering effect due to the presence of bioactive components (monacolins) that act by inhibiting the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. In August 2018, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded in its assessment of the use of RYR (further amended in June 2022) that monacolins from RYR raise significant safety concerns when used as a food supplement at a dose of 10 mg/day. In particular, individual cases of serious adverse effects of monacolins from RYR have been reported at intakes as low as 3 mg/day. The EFSA Panel pointed out several uncertainties regarding the available data. Recent findings: We conducted an in-depth and updated analysis of the serious adverse events, with a focus on rhabdomyolysis and acute hepatitis, associated with the consumption of RYR. An analysis of the Food and Drug Administration reporting systems revealed a very small number of cases of rhabdomyolysis or severe acute hepatitis associated with RYR use. In addition, only a few case reports of these serious adverse events associated with RYR use have been published. Based on data from adverse event reporting systems and available case reports, the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis or severe acute hepatitis that could be associated with the use of RYR appears to be extremely rare compared to the occurrence with statins, which is rare to common.

Rhabdomyolysis or Severe Acute Hepatitis Associated with the Use of Red Yeast Rice Extracts: an Update from the Adverse Event Reporting Systems / M. Banach, G.D. Norata. - In: CURRENT ATHEROSCLEROSIS REPORTS. - ISSN 1523-3804. - 25:11(2023 Nov), pp. 879-888. [10.1007/s11883-023-01157-4]

Rhabdomyolysis or Severe Acute Hepatitis Associated with the Use of Red Yeast Rice Extracts: an Update from the Adverse Event Reporting Systems

G.D. Norata
2023

Abstract

Purpose of review: Elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and lowering LDL-C reduces the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Among natural approaches known for their lipid-lowering properties, red yeast rice (RYR) has a cholesterol-lowering effect due to the presence of bioactive components (monacolins) that act by inhibiting the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. In August 2018, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded in its assessment of the use of RYR (further amended in June 2022) that monacolins from RYR raise significant safety concerns when used as a food supplement at a dose of 10 mg/day. In particular, individual cases of serious adverse effects of monacolins from RYR have been reported at intakes as low as 3 mg/day. The EFSA Panel pointed out several uncertainties regarding the available data. Recent findings: We conducted an in-depth and updated analysis of the serious adverse events, with a focus on rhabdomyolysis and acute hepatitis, associated with the consumption of RYR. An analysis of the Food and Drug Administration reporting systems revealed a very small number of cases of rhabdomyolysis or severe acute hepatitis associated with RYR use. In addition, only a few case reports of these serious adverse events associated with RYR use have been published. Based on data from adverse event reporting systems and available case reports, the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis or severe acute hepatitis that could be associated with the use of RYR appears to be extremely rare compared to the occurrence with statins, which is rare to common.
Acute liver injury; LDL-C; Monacolin K, Red yeast rice, Lipid-lowering; Rhabdomyolysis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1025952
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