Human studies employing intracerebral and transcranial perturbations suggest that the input-output properties of cortical circuits are dramatically affected during sleep in healthy subjects as well as in awake patients with multifocal and focal brain injury. In all these conditions, cortical circuits react to direct stimulation with an initial activation followed by suppression of activity (Off-period) that disrupts the build-up of sustained causal interactions typically observed in healthy wakefulness. The transition to this stereotypical response has important clinical implications, being associated with loss of consciousness or loss of functions. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation of these findings by means of simulations of a cortical-like module endowed with activity-dependent adaptation and mean-field theory. First, we show that fundamental aspects of the local responses elicited in humans by direct cortical stimulation can be replicated by systematically varying the relationships between adaptation strength and excitation level in the network. Then, we reveal a region in the adaptation-excitation parameter space of crucial relevance for both physiological and pathologic conditions, where spontaneous activity and responses to perturbation diverge in their ability to reveal Off-periods. Finally, we substantiate through simulations of connected cortical-like modules the role of adaptation mechanisms in preventing cortical neurons from engaging in reciprocal causal interactions, as suggested by empirical studies. These modeling results provide a general theoretical framework and a mechanistic interpretation for a body of neurophysiological measurements that bears critical relevance for physiological states as well as for the assessment and rehabilitation of brain-injured patients.

Adaptation Shapes Local Cortical Reactivity: From Bifurcation Diagram and Simulations to Human Physiological and Pathological Responses / A. Cattani, A. Galluzzi, M. Fecchio, A. Pigorini, M. Mattia, M. Massimini. - In: ENEURO. - ISSN 2373-2822. - 10:7(2023 Jul), pp. ENEURO.0435-22.2023.1-ENEURO.0435-22.2023.15. [10.1523/ENEURO.0435-22.2023]

Adaptation Shapes Local Cortical Reactivity: From Bifurcation Diagram and Simulations to Human Physiological and Pathological Responses

A. Pigorini;M. Massimini
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Human studies employing intracerebral and transcranial perturbations suggest that the input-output properties of cortical circuits are dramatically affected during sleep in healthy subjects as well as in awake patients with multifocal and focal brain injury. In all these conditions, cortical circuits react to direct stimulation with an initial activation followed by suppression of activity (Off-period) that disrupts the build-up of sustained causal interactions typically observed in healthy wakefulness. The transition to this stereotypical response has important clinical implications, being associated with loss of consciousness or loss of functions. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation of these findings by means of simulations of a cortical-like module endowed with activity-dependent adaptation and mean-field theory. First, we show that fundamental aspects of the local responses elicited in humans by direct cortical stimulation can be replicated by systematically varying the relationships between adaptation strength and excitation level in the network. Then, we reveal a region in the adaptation-excitation parameter space of crucial relevance for both physiological and pathologic conditions, where spontaneous activity and responses to perturbation diverge in their ability to reveal Off-periods. Finally, we substantiate through simulations of connected cortical-like modules the role of adaptation mechanisms in preventing cortical neurons from engaging in reciprocal causal interactions, as suggested by empirical studies. These modeling results provide a general theoretical framework and a mechanistic interpretation for a body of neurophysiological measurements that bears critical relevance for physiological states as well as for the assessment and rehabilitation of brain-injured patients.
bifurcation theory; cortical bistability; cortical network model; off-period
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
lug-2023
14-lug-2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1013308
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