Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare and severe neurological disorder mainly affecting females, usually linked to methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene mutations. Manifestations of RTT typically include loss of purposeful hand skills, gait and motor abnormalities, loss of spoken language, stereotypic hand movements, epilepsy, and autonomic dysfunction. Patients with RTT have a higher incidence of sudden death than the general population. Literature data indicate an uncoupling between measures of breathing and heart rate control that could offer insight into the mechanisms that lead to greater vulnerability to sudden death. Understanding the neural mechanisms of autonomic dysfunction and its correlation with sudden death is essential for patient care. Experimental evidence for increased sympathetic or reduced vagal modulation to the heart has spurred efforts to develop quantitative markers of cardiac autonomic profile. Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a valuable non-invasive test to estimate the modulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to the heart. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge on autonomic dysfunction and, in particular, to assess whether HRV parameters can help unravel patterns of cardiac autonomic dysregulation in patients with RTT. Literature data show reduced global HRV (total spectral power and R-R mean) and a shifted sympatho-vagal balance toward sympathetic predominance and vagal withdrawal in patients with RTT compared to controls. In addition, correlations between HRV and genotype and phenotype features or neurochemical changes were investigated. The data reported in this review suggest an important impairment in sympatho-vagal balance, supporting possible future research scenarios, targeting ANS.

Cardiac autonomic control in Rett syndrome: Insights from heart rate variability analysis / R. Cordani, E. Tobaldini, G.D. Rodrigues, D. Giambersio, M. Veneruso, L. Chiarella, N. Disma, E. De Grandis, E. Toschi-Dias, L. Furlan, A. Carandina, G. Prato, L. Nobili, N. Montano. - In: FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE. - ISSN 1662-4548. - 17:(2023), pp. 1048278.1-1048278.10. [10.3389/fnins.2023.1048278]

Cardiac autonomic control in Rett syndrome: Insights from heart rate variability analysis

E. Tobaldini
Co-primo
;
G.D. Rodrigues;E. De Grandis;L. Furlan;A. Carandina;N. Montano
Co-ultimo
2023

Abstract

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare and severe neurological disorder mainly affecting females, usually linked to methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene mutations. Manifestations of RTT typically include loss of purposeful hand skills, gait and motor abnormalities, loss of spoken language, stereotypic hand movements, epilepsy, and autonomic dysfunction. Patients with RTT have a higher incidence of sudden death than the general population. Literature data indicate an uncoupling between measures of breathing and heart rate control that could offer insight into the mechanisms that lead to greater vulnerability to sudden death. Understanding the neural mechanisms of autonomic dysfunction and its correlation with sudden death is essential for patient care. Experimental evidence for increased sympathetic or reduced vagal modulation to the heart has spurred efforts to develop quantitative markers of cardiac autonomic profile. Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a valuable non-invasive test to estimate the modulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to the heart. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge on autonomic dysfunction and, in particular, to assess whether HRV parameters can help unravel patterns of cardiac autonomic dysregulation in patients with RTT. Literature data show reduced global HRV (total spectral power and R-R mean) and a shifted sympatho-vagal balance toward sympathetic predominance and vagal withdrawal in patients with RTT compared to controls. In addition, correlations between HRV and genotype and phenotype features or neurochemical changes were investigated. The data reported in this review suggest an important impairment in sympatho-vagal balance, supporting possible future research scenarios, targeting ANS.
Rett syndrome (RTT); autonomic nervous system; cardiac autonomic control; dysautonomia; heart rate variability (HRV); methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2)
Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna
2023
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1008711
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