In the quest to eliminate measles virus (MV) and rubella virus (Ruv), every suspected case must be properly identified and diagnosed. Since 2017, in Milan (Italy), a total of 978 measles and rubella suspected cases (fever and rash) were investigated and 310 were not laboratory confirmed (discarded cases). To improve surveillance activities, we investigated the presence in discarded cases of 8 other viral pathogens commonly associated with rash: human herpesvirus 6 (HHV‐6) and 7 (HHV‐7), parvovirus B19 (B19V), enterovirus (EV), Epstein−Barr virus (EBV), human adenovirus (HAdV), cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and SARS‐CoV‐2. Differential diagnosis was carried out on 289 discarded cases by multiplex real‐time PCR assays. At least one pathogen was detected in 188 cases (65.1%) with HHV‐7 being the most frequently detected virus. No difference in the number of detected infections overtime was observed and infections were identified in all age groups. As expected, most HHV‐6, EV, HAdV, and HCMV‐positive cases were found in children aged 0−4 years and HHV‐7 was most frequent in the 15−39 age group. In light of the World Health Organization measles elimination goal, the introduction of laboratory methods for differential diagnosis is required for the final classification of clinically compatible cases. The used screening panel allowed us to increase the percentage of virus‐positive cases to 87.5%, allowing us to clarify viral involvement and epidemiology, improve diagnosis, and strengthen surveillance activities. As all investigated pathogens were detected, this diagnostic panel was a suitable tool to complement MV and RuV surveillance activities.

Differential diagnosis of fever and rash cases negative for measles and rubella to complement surveillance activities / C. Fappani, M. Gori, S. Bianchi, M. Terraneo, E. Bilardi, D. Colzani, E. Tanzi, M. Canuti, A. Amendola. - In: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY. - ISSN 0146-6615. - 95:10(2023 Oct 05), pp. e29141.1-e29141.10. [10.1002/jmv.29141]

Differential diagnosis of fever and rash cases negative for measles and rubella to complement surveillance activities

C. Fappani
Primo
;
M. Gori
Secondo
;
S. Bianchi;M. Terraneo;D. Colzani;E. Tanzi
Penultimo
;
M. Canuti
Co-ultimo
;
A. Amendola
Co-ultimo
2023

Abstract

In the quest to eliminate measles virus (MV) and rubella virus (Ruv), every suspected case must be properly identified and diagnosed. Since 2017, in Milan (Italy), a total of 978 measles and rubella suspected cases (fever and rash) were investigated and 310 were not laboratory confirmed (discarded cases). To improve surveillance activities, we investigated the presence in discarded cases of 8 other viral pathogens commonly associated with rash: human herpesvirus 6 (HHV‐6) and 7 (HHV‐7), parvovirus B19 (B19V), enterovirus (EV), Epstein−Barr virus (EBV), human adenovirus (HAdV), cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and SARS‐CoV‐2. Differential diagnosis was carried out on 289 discarded cases by multiplex real‐time PCR assays. At least one pathogen was detected in 188 cases (65.1%) with HHV‐7 being the most frequently detected virus. No difference in the number of detected infections overtime was observed and infections were identified in all age groups. As expected, most HHV‐6, EV, HAdV, and HCMV‐positive cases were found in children aged 0−4 years and HHV‐7 was most frequent in the 15−39 age group. In light of the World Health Organization measles elimination goal, the introduction of laboratory methods for differential diagnosis is required for the final classification of clinically compatible cases. The used screening panel allowed us to increase the percentage of virus‐positive cases to 87.5%, allowing us to clarify viral involvement and epidemiology, improve diagnosis, and strengthen surveillance activities. As all investigated pathogens were detected, this diagnostic panel was a suitable tool to complement MV and RuV surveillance activities.
differential diagnosis; fever and rash; measles; parvovirus B19; rubella; surveillance
Settore MED/42 - Igiene Generale e Applicata
Settore MED/07 - Microbiologia e Microbiologia Clinica
5-ott-2023
21-set-2023
wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jmv
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1006908
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