Cigarette (CIG) smoking often precedes the use of illegal drugs. Electronic-cigarettes (e-CIGs) have been promoted as a means of stopping smoking and reducing the harmful effects of CIGs on the population. However, although e-CIGs eliminate some of the morbidity associated with combustible tobacco, they are still nicotine-delivery devices. In order to study whether the nicotine delivered via e-CIG acts as “a gateway drug” to the use of cannabis, we analysed the behavioural and molecular effects of 7 weeks’ pre-exposure to air (AIR), e-CIGs or CIGs on addiction-related conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice using a sub-threshold (0.01 mg/kg) dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis. After 8 and 66 days of withdrawal, this Δ 9 -THC dose was ineffective in inducing CPP in mice pre-exposed to pump-driven AIR, but very effective in mice pre-exposed to e-CIGs or CIGs. Exposure to e-CIGs or CIGs increases the expression of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which remains high during short-term e-CIG or CIG withdrawal and long-term CIG withdrawal and is not influenced by treatment with Δ 9 -THC. At the end of e-CIG or CIG exposure and during withdrawal, the mice also had a higher AMPA receptors GluA1/GluA2-3 ratio in the NAc. Chronic nicotine exposure increases sensitivity to rewarding effects of Δ 9 -THC in mice and produces long-lasting neurobiological changes regardless of the delivery method (CIG vs. e-CIG). The exposure to passive tobacco smoke or e-CIG vapours can similarly increase vulnerability to the effects of cannabis and possibly other drugs of abuse.
Increased sensitivity to D9-THC-induced rewarding effects after seven-week exposure to electronic and tobacco cigarettes in mice / L. Ponzoni, M. Moretti, D. Braida, M. Zoli, F. Clementi, P. Viani, M. Sala, C. Gotti. - In: EUROPEAN NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 0924-977X. - 29:4(2019 Apr), pp. 566-576.
|Titolo:||Increased sensitivity to D9-THC-induced rewarding effects after seven-week exposure to electronic and tobacco cigarettes in mice|
|Parole Chiave:||AMPA receptors; CB1 receptors; Cigarette smoke; Conditioned place preference; Electronic cigarette vapour; Δ 9 -THC ; Pharmacology; Neurology; Neurology (clinical); Psychiatry and Mental Health; Biological Psychiatry; Pharmacology (medical)|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica|
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
|Data di pubblicazione:||apr-2019|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||14-feb-2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2019.02.001|
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