In 15th century Lombardy, petitions addressed to the dukes of Milan were not spontaneous writings. They were rather elaborated texts ; formulated by experts on writing, petitions were drafted in legal forms, and often written in latin. They also were defective and incomplete texts, which were completed and transformed in “rescripts” when the prince (or his magistrates) attached his signature and the date. Shaped in a “fictional” sequence of events and motivations, the petitions aimed at obtaining a ducal privilege, that is a benevolent act from the prince. The duke’s propaganda claimed that subjects could easily reach the prince’s authority using either petitions or public audiences ; in turn, the petitioners presented themselves as poor and defenseless, and begged protection from the ducal power. Eventually, these procedures reflect the novelty of post-communal institutions and build a new image of the Prince. The Italian archives preserve a wide range of the many types of concessions that followed a petition: licenses, safe-conducts, privileges, immunities, pardons and graces, summary legal proceedings. The Visconti-Sforza, as other Italian lords, experimented such a new technique of power and adopted a principle of “equity” which allowed them to manipulate and trespass laws and statutes.

Pétitions et suppliques pendant la domination des Visconti et des Sforza au xve siècle : exception, dérogation et formes simplifiées de justice / M.N. Covini. - In: L'ATELIER DU CRH. - ISSN 1760-7914. - 13:Suppl.(2015). [10.4000/acrh.6548]

Pétitions et suppliques pendant la domination des Visconti et des Sforza au xve siècle : exception, dérogation et formes simplifiées de justice

M.N. Covini
Primo
2015

Abstract

In 15th century Lombardy, petitions addressed to the dukes of Milan were not spontaneous writings. They were rather elaborated texts ; formulated by experts on writing, petitions were drafted in legal forms, and often written in latin. They also were defective and incomplete texts, which were completed and transformed in “rescripts” when the prince (or his magistrates) attached his signature and the date. Shaped in a “fictional” sequence of events and motivations, the petitions aimed at obtaining a ducal privilege, that is a benevolent act from the prince. The duke’s propaganda claimed that subjects could easily reach the prince’s authority using either petitions or public audiences ; in turn, the petitioners presented themselves as poor and defenseless, and begged protection from the ducal power. Eventually, these procedures reflect the novelty of post-communal institutions and build a new image of the Prince. The Italian archives preserve a wide range of the many types of concessions that followed a petition: licenses, safe-conducts, privileges, immunities, pardons and graces, summary legal proceedings. The Visconti-Sforza, as other Italian lords, experimented such a new technique of power and adopted a principle of “equity” which allowed them to manipulate and trespass laws and statutes.
No
French
Les suppliques adressées aux ducs de Milan au xve siècle n’avaient rien de spontané : ces textes étaient élaborés et suivaient des formulaires précis. Plus fréquemment écrits en latin qu’en langue vulgaire, les textes étaient rédigés selon des formes légales par des professionnels de l’écriture. La pétition était un acte imparfait et inachevé : la date et la signature étaient apposées par l’autorité et la supplique se « perfectionnait » seulement lorsqu’elle était incorporée à l’acte princier. Enfin, la supplique déroulait une séquence narrative d’événements et de faits visant à obtenir une concession. La propagande ducale soulignait l’« ouverture » à tous des audiences et des suppliques et la facilité d’accéder au prince, tandis que les requérants se présentaient d’une façon stéréotypée : ils se disaient invariablement pauvres et faibles et en appelaient à la miséricorde et à la protection du seigneur. Enfin, les suppliques et les grâces reflètent la nouveauté politique sortie de la crise des institutions communales et proposent une nouvelle image du prince. La typologie des concessions est très variée : dispenses, laissez-passer, permissions, privilèges, exemptions, licences pour utiliser la justice sommaire, pardons, grâces… À travers la réponse aux suppliques, les nouveaux seigneurs de l’Italie de la Renaissance expérimentaient de nouvelles techniques de pouvoir qui tendaient à dépasser les lois et les statuts en appelant au principe d’équité.
petitions; Italian Renaissance States; prince’s privileges and authority; political languages; summary legal proceedings
Settore M-STO/01 - Storia Medievale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Ricerca di base
Pubblicazione scientifica
2015
Centre de recherches historiques
13
Suppl.
3
Pubblicato
Periodico con rilevanza internazionale
Aderisco
info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Pétitions et suppliques pendant la domination des Visconti et des Sforza au xve siècle : exception, dérogation et formes simplifiées de justice / M.N. Covini. - In: L'ATELIER DU CRH. - ISSN 1760-7914. - 13:Suppl.(2015). [10.4000/acrh.6548]
open
Prodotti della ricerca::01 - Articolo su periodico
1
262
Article (author)
Periodico senza Impact Factor
M.N. Covini
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/287582
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