Newborns with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) have an increased risk for congenital heart defects (CHD) due to a common embryonic developmental program between thyroid gland and heart and great vessels. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the prevalence and origin of thyroid disorders in young patients with CHD. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective observational study between January 2007 and January 2009 in academic Pediatric Cardiosurgery and Endocrinology. PATIENTS: Patients included 324 children (164 males, 160 females, aged 0.2-15.4 yrs) with CHD. INTERVENTION: Subjects underwent hormonal and genetic screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels were assessed. RESULTS: Two CHD patients were diagnosed with CH at the neonatal screening (1:162). Mild hypothyroidism (serum TSH > 4.0 μU/ml) was diagnosed and confirmed 6 months later [TSH = 5.4 ± 1.5 μU/ml; free T(4) = 1.3 ± 0.2 ng/dl (normal values 0.8-1.9)] in 37 children (11.5%) who were negative at neonatal screening. Hypothyroidism was not related to type of CHD, whereas TSH levels positively correlated with serum N-terminal pro-type B natriuretic peptide levels. Biochemical and ultrasound findings consistent with thyroid autoimmunity were present in three of 37 hypothyroid children (8.1%). One patient had hemiagenesis (2.7%). Variations in candidate genes were screened in CHD patients. NKX2.5 coding sequence was normal in all samples. A 3-Mb microdeletion in 22q11.2 was detected in three patients (8.3%), whereas only known polymorphisms were identified in TBX1 coding sequence. CONCLUSIONS: CHD patients have an increased risk for both CH (10-fold higher) and acquired mild hypothyroidism (3-fold higher). Unrecognized mild hypothyroidism may negatively affect the outcome of CHD children, suggesting that thyroid function should be repeatedly checked. Thyroid autoimmunity and 22q11.2 microdeletions account for small percentages of these cases, and still unknown mechanisms underline such a strong association.
|Titolo:||Increased risk for non-autoimmune hypothyroidism in young patients with congenital heart defects|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/13 - Endocrinologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1-lug-2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1210/jc.2011-0057|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|